ta – The negative ta exclusively negates verbal predicates (Baier & Wdzenczny, 2010). Specifically it negates stative and non-continuative verbal predicates. As well, ta negates interrogatives, and constructions with the morpheme epɬ – ‘have.’ Also, ta is used to respond in the negative.
1 Particle Modification of ta
- Particle k̓ʷ [evidential] expresses astonishment and surprise. The prevailing belief has been up-ended.
- k̓ʷ ta, apparently no/not. An expression indicating that the evidence or understanding of a topic is surprisingly contrary.
- k̓ʷ x̌ʷa we ta, evidently it really might not be so. An expression indicating the evidence of the topic surprisingly could be contrary.
- k̓ʷ imi u ta, oh, it really is not. An expression indicating the evidence of the topic surprisingly really is contrary.
- k̓ʷ še ta, apparently then it’s not. An expression indicating that the evidence in succession of the topic is surprisingly contrary.
- Particle x̌ʷa [evidential] expresses uncertainty. It is often translated as ‘maybe’.
- x̌ʷa ta, maybe not. An expression indicating uncertainty the evidence of a topic is contrary.
- x̌ʷa u x̌ʷa ta, maybe, maybe not.
- x̌ʷa n̓em x̌ʷa ta, maybe it will, maybe not.
2 Interrogative Negation
- Interrogative stem̓ [s-tem̓] inquires about utilization. It is often translated as the question ‘what’.
- ta stem̓, nothing, none.
- ta l stem̓, nothing there, nothing with, nothing at.
- ta tʔe stem̓, not a thing, not anything.
- ta pistem̓, never.
- Interrogative swe [s-wet] inquires about a person. It is often translated as the question ‘who’.
- ta swe, nobody.
3 Stative Negation
- Stative prefix es– establishes non-continuative verbal states.
- ta es noɬups, s/he does not have pants on (either they don’t wear pants or they don’t have any pants).
- ta es noɬupsm, s/he doesn’t put pants on.
- ta es xʷist, s/he doesn’t walk.
- ta es sust t kapi, s/he doesn’t drink coffee.
- ta čnes nsuxʷneʔ, I don’t understand.
- n̓e ta kʷes tx̌ʷmscut m kʷ xʷey̓t, if you don’t do right you will be in trouble.
4 Causative Negation
- The causative state, transitive, marks activity transferred from agent to patient. It is constructed with the stative prefix es– and causative suffix –s-tes.
- ta es noɬupsts, s/he does not put pants on her/him/it.
- ta es suxʷstn, I do not recognize her/him/it.
- ta es misten, I do not know it.
5 Irrealis Negation, non-continuative
- The irrealis prefix qɬ– indicates something that is not known to have happened as the speaker is talking. The irrealis prefix qɬ– before nominal s– morphologically becomes qs–
- ta qs noɬupsm, s/he is not going to put pants on.
- ta čiqs noɬupsm, I am not going to put pants on.
- ta čiqs sust t nx̣ʷoskʷ x̌i n̓e čn nslslmtu, I’m not going to drink beer, I might get dizzy (drunk).
- The irrealis prefix qɬ-, stative prefix es-, and causative suffix –stes. The two prefixes qɬ– and es– produce the prefix qes-.
- ta qes noɬupsts, s/he doesn’t put pants on him/her. This is an ongoing state.
- ta qes noɬpstxʷ, don’t put pants on him/her. As in the transitive case above, second person negation in the causative can be either a statement or a command.
- ta qes nɬeptmstxʷ, don’t forget it, don’t forget about it.
- ta qeʔ qes hoystm, we mustn’t quit.
- The irrealis prefix qɬ– and stative prefix es-, morphologically forms qes-.
- ta qes noɬups, s/he refrains from wearing pants, s/he is not going to wear pants.
- ta kʷ qes noɬups, don’t wear pants, refrain from wearing pants. The second person negation is either a statement or command.
- ta či qes noɬups, I refrain from wearing pants, I am not going to be wearing pants.
- The irrealis prefix qɬ– with transitive suffix –ntes. Morphologically, –ntes reduces to –is with stressed stem words. (-nten -> –ntn, –ntexʷ -> –ntxʷ)
- ta qs noɬupsis, s/he won’t put pants on him/her.
- ta qs noɬupsntxʷ, you don’t put pant on him/her. In the second person, the phrase is either a statement or a command.
6 Nominal Negation
- Negation of nominals with an initial ta proceeded by the word. The nominal prefix s– is often written with the ta as tas in the third person. Also the nominal is often written with čn and morphologically changed to či to become čis.
- tas noɬups [ta s-noɬups], s/he didn’t wear pants. The nominal snoɬups mean ‘her/his wearing of pants’.
- ta čis noɬups [ta či-s-noɬups], I didn’t wear pants.
- tas ocqéʔ ɬu pusts mali, Mary’s cat did not go out. In this phrase, nominal sʔocqéʔ is the ‘cat’s going out’ that did not happen.
- ta čis itš, I did not sleep.
- ta či sewneʔ, I did not hear.Nominalizer prefix s– [nominal] creates noun-like expressions.
- Nominalizer prefix s– [nominal] with transitive suffix –ntes.
- tas noɬupsis [ta s-noɬups-is], s/he didn’t put pants on her/him. The nominal construction snoɬupsis means ‘her/his putting pants on her/him’.
- tas k̓ʷl̕nuis [ta s-k̓ʷl̕-nu-is], s/he didn’t complete it.
- tas nsopnuntxʷ, you didn’t drink it all up.
- Nominalizer prefix s– [nominal] with suffix –m. The suffix –m removes the possessive inflection created by the nominal prefix s-.
- tas noɬupsm [ta s-noɬups-m], s/he did not put pants on, there were no pants. The nominal snoɬupsm means ‘his/her putting of pants on’.
- ta čis noɬupsm [ta či-s-noɬups-m], I did not put pants on.
- tas uččutm [wič, see, find] it cannot be seen, it is invisible.
7 Locative Possessive Negation
- The possessive prefix epɬ– establishes locative possession. It is often translated as ‘have’. Morphologically, the ɬ is dropped before s.
- ta ep snoɬups, s/he has no pants (not wearing or not in possession).
- ta čn ep snoɬups, I have no pants. In this phrase the possession of pants refers to the location of pants.
- ta kʷ ep snoɬups, you have no pants.
- ta epɬ nc̓eštin, s/he has no shame.
- The affixive possessive pronouns in-, an-, –s, qeʔ-, –mp, –ʔV– –s establish personal possession.
- ta ep snoɬupsts [ta ep-s-noɬups-ts], s/he doesn’t have any pants (she doesn’t own any pants).
- ta iep snoɬups [ta i-ep-s-noɬups], I don’t have any pants. In this phrase the possession of pants refers to the ownership of pants.
- ta ap snoɬups [ta a-p-s-onɬups], you don’t have any pants.
8 Non-verbial Negation
- The word tam is used to negate non-verbials.
- tam snoɬups, it’s not pants.
- tam xʷʔit, it’s not much.
- tam unexʷ, it’s not true
9 Continuative verbs
- The stative prefix es– with continuative suffix –i create present continuous activity.
- tam es noɬupsi [tam es-noɬups-i], s/he isn’t putting on pants.
- tam čnes itši, I am not sleeping.
- tam čnes nte [tam čn es-ntels-i], I don’t want to.
- tam es t̕ipeysi, it’s not raining.
- The stative prefix es– with transitive –m.
- tam es noɬupsms [tam es-noɬups-m-s], s/he isn’t putting pants on him/her.
- tam ies noɬupsm, I am not putting pants on him/her.
- tam as noɬupsm, you are not putting pants on him/her.
- tam kʷ ies nx̌lemm, I am not afraid of you.
- The irrealis prefix qs– with continuative suffix –i.
- tam qs noɬupsi, s/he is not going to put on pants.
- tam čiqs q̓spcini, I’m not going to talk long.
- tam čiqs susti t nx̌ʷoskʷ, I’m not going to drink beer.
- The irrealis stative prefix qes– with transitive –m.
- tam qes noɬupsms, s/he is not always going to put pants on him/her.
- tam iqes noɬupsm, I’m not always going to put pants on him/her.
- tam aqes noɬupsm, don’t put pants on him/her.
10 Negating Personal Possessives
- With personal possession.
- tam snoɬupsts, it’s not her/his pants.
- tam isnoɬups, it’s not my pants.
- tam asnoɬups, it’s not you pants.
- tam asnq̓eʔels, it’s none of your business.
- With irrealis possession.
- tam qsnoɬupsts [tam q(ɬ)-s-noɬups-ts], they’re not going to be her/his pants.
- tam iqsnoɬups, they’re not going to be my pants.
- tam aqsnoɬups, they’re not going to be your pants.
- tam iqsx̌elwiʔ, he is not going to be my husband.
11 Prefixive Negation
- The prefix tmɬ– negates it’s stem word. Morphologically, the ɬ is dropped when followed by nominal s-.
- tmsnoɬups [tm(ɬ)-s-noɬups], s/he is out of pants, there aren’t any pants.
- čn tmsnoɬups, I’m out of pants, I don’t have any pants.
- kʷ tmsnoɬups, you’re out of pants, you don’t have any.
- tmstem̓, it has nothing.
- čn tmstem̓, I have nothing.
- tmsnimaptn, antifreeze.
- Baier, Nico and Dibella Wdzenczny. 2009. Negation in Montana Salish. ICSNL 43 (UBCWPL, vol. 23):1-13, Bellingham, WA.