č- elevative

Cross-dialectical Relations

Nselíšcn – Nqlispelíšcn

č– prep. of movement towards…; before original substantives remaining substantives it means to, towards…; before substantives derivated from a verb ending in -ten it means the reason, the object of the verb itself…; before substantives verbified it means to be after, to go for…; prefixed with compound verbs in many cases it imparts a peculiar meaning to the affixed particle…; with verbs it means to, at, towards, or, nearly in all pages…; prefixed to the verb implying movement or situation and giving it the instrumental conjugation, means near, by, lat.” Giorda, 1877-79.

č– towards, upwards, to go after.” Speck, 1977.


“Directional prefix, č-, after, is very limited in distribution. It usually occurs with derived transitive stems formed from bases with intransitive roots expressing some type of motion.” Carlson, 1972


t-, on and a part of; č-, on, attached to but not part of, at a point; čet-, on a surface or object broader than subject, above, over; čs-, after, behind, in pursuit of, for a purpose.” Reichard, 1938

“Locative, čet-, on; t-, on; čic-, toward here. Doak, 1998

čet-, on a surface; above, over. Brinkman, 2007.


“The directive prefix is /k– /, with an allomorph [t-] before roots beginning with a velar. The meaning of bases so derived is an extension of the meaning of the root.” Mattina, 1973.


Positional prefix k-, quoting Kinkade, ‘on or against something vertical.’ Willet, 2003

Positional prefix t-, quoting Kinkade, ‘attached to, cover.’ Willet, 2003

Positional prefix kat-, quoting Kinkade, ‘on a flat surface, over.’ Willet, 2003


The prefix, nə-, in Thompson’s, The Thompson Salish Language, has a similar use as Nselíšcn prefix, č-.

“Localizer /-/ signals localization or a more abstract specialization, as opposed to vaguer or more usual references of unmarked forms.” Thompson, 1992.

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