-m, middle voice

-m, middle form, valency increasing stative, monovalent to bivalent, transitivity decreasing transitive and ditransitive to intransitive, bivalent.

MIDDLES are forms referring to activities and states in which the subject is agent. A patient or goal may also be suggested although it is not formally provided for. ~Thompson (1992:102)

  • -m, middle, antipassive.
  • -em, dynamic middle.
  • -im, process oriented middle.
  • -um, potential middle.
  • -am, grandiose middle.
  • k̓ʷul̕, work, do.
    • k̓ʷul̕m, S/he made something, s/he did something.
  • šy̓it, first, ahead, at the lead, in front.
    • šy̓itm, S/he became first, in front, ahead.

In weak roots an epenthetic vowel is infixed between the stem/root word and the suffix.

  • p̓in, long objects put in a lying position.
    • p̓nim, S/he laid the sticks/logs down.
  • q̓iy̓, write mark.
    • q̓y̓im, S/he wrote/marked something.
  • xʷeʕ, lift/raise from a surface; to lift off to fly.
    • xʷʕem, S/he lifted something up.
  • c̓aq̓, It is struck, s/he is hit with projectile/trajectory object.
    • c̓q̓em, The lightning struck something; S/he struck s.t. with a projectile.
  • kʷen, take.
    • kʷnem, S/he took/brought something.
  • ɬek̓ʷ, pierce and hold.
    • čɬk̓ʷum, S/he picked something up with an instrument the pierces and holds, needle, fork, etc.
  • pitkʷ, transfix, pierce and hold in place, nail, tack, etc.
    • ptkʷum, S/he transfixed somthing.
  • t̕uk̓ʷ, put something down, place something.
    • tk̓ʷum, S/he put something down.
  • p̓at̕, It is a viscous mass
    • p̓t̕am, S/he splattered something.
  • p̓ac̓, It is pressed, squeezed.
    • p̓c̓am, S/he has diarrhea; The skunk sprayed someone.
  • p̓aʕ, to burn grass/timber/hair.
    • p̓ʕam, S/he burned the grass/timber/hair.
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