The transitive and causative suffixes are in the valence slot of the Derivational Stem.

  • Transitive Suffixes: -nt, -st, -ɬul

The Grammatical Relation is the subject object relation. Person is 1st, 2nd, 3rd. Number is singular, plural. These suffixes in the GR-PER-NUM slot of the Inflectional Stem.

  • Object suffixes: -em, -um, -m, -ci
  • Object proclitics: qʷo, qeɁ
  • Subject suffixes: -es, -s, -exʷ, -en, -ep, -t, -lt
  • Subject proclitic: qeɁ

What is the difference between transitive and causative?


  • Demirdache, Hamida. 1997. ‘Out of Control’ in Salish and Event (De)composition. University of British Columbia.
  • Willet, Marie, 2003. A Grammatical Sketch ofNxa’amxcin (Moses-Columbia Salish). Dissertation. University of Victoria, British Columbia.

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