Affectional Reduplication

One form of reduplication is the process of creating terms of endearment or pet names, affectional – nqʷn̓nmin. Terms of endearment in Salish translate similar to the English expressions, “cutie” or “sweetie”.  The tables below show all the known root-word based endearment reduplication patterns. Find the root-word type and apply to one of the four patterns below.

The basic patterns, based on root-type, for creating endearment terms are as follows:

This reduplication pattern applies to roots with the form, consonant, vowel, consonant. This root form is the most prevalent in the Salish langauge. This root form retains stress on its vowel, in this example, /í/. The table below shows how the root word is reduplicated to form terms of endearment. In the tables below the green colour represents the root word. The red are reduplication additions. Blue are morphological additions.

  • t̕iš, sweet
    • t̕et̕išeɁ, sweetie

This example, /t̕et̕íšeʔ/, sweetie, is applied to loved ones and generally children. The translation often indicates a cuteness, frequent-ness, and a small stature or prominence.

  • šew, extends, grows, becomes enlarged
    • šešew̓eɁ, endearing term for daughter.

This example shows the same pattern of creating a term of endearment. The root word, /šew/, as the basis for describing daughter hints at how important daughters were view to the ancestors. Daughter, šešwtm.

More strong-root forms
sik‍ʷ, whistle, becomes sesík‍ʷeʔ, s/he, one that whistles regularly, is a pleasant whistler; beloved whistler; a young child that has started to whistle.
k‍ʷil, red, becomes k‍ʷ‍ek‍ʷ‍íl̕eʔ, it is a cute red one; the red thing is cute.
x̣es, good, becomes x̣ex̣éseʔ, s/he/it is a cute one; a child that frequently does acts of kindness and/or cute antics.

  • sew, ask.
    • sesw̓eɁ, questioner
  • siy, power, ability
    • sesy̓eɁ, smartie.
  • x̌ʷc̓, argue.
    • x̌ʷex̌ʷc̓eɁ, arguer, a cute arguer, such as a child or perhaps your sparing/debating partner.

Often these terms are applied to children or infants and therefore receive a diminutive translation. The form can be applied to any situation that has a cute factor or the actor holds a special place in one’s heart. The diminutive /ɬ-/ may be added to increase the cuteness or diminish the stature of the subject.

More weak-root forms
piy, happy, becomes pepy̓éʔ, happy one, s/he is a happy person, often happy/jolly.
q̓ʷay̓, black, becomes q̓ʷaq̓ʷy̓eʔ, blackie.
t̕ey̓eʔ, bad, becomes, t̕et̕y̓éʔ, s/he/it is bad but cute; a child/infant that is normally well behaved, cute, is acting badly, yet retains cuteness. To increase cuteness, ɬt̕ét̕y̓eʔ. If someone were bothersome in a non-intrusive way or out of ignorance you could call them, t̕ét̕y̓eʔ.

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