One form of reduplication is the process of creating terms of endearment or pet names, affectional. Terms of endearment in Salish translate similar to the English expressions, “cutie” or “sweetie”. The tables below show all the known root-word based endearment reduplication patterns. Find the root-word type and apply to one of the four patterns below.
The basic patterns, based on root-type, for creating endearment terms are as follows:
|root word||c1 – consonant 1||v1 – vowel||c2 – consonant 2|
|t̕iš – sweet||t̕||i||š|
This reduplication pattern applies to roots with the form, consonant, vowel, consonant. This root form is the most prevalent in the Salish langauge. This root form retains stress on its vowel, in this example, /í/. The table below shows how the root word is reduplicated to form terms of endearment. In the tables below the green colour represents the root word. The red are reduplication additions. Blue are morphological additions.
|t̕iš – sweet||t̕||e||t̕||í||š||eʔ||t̕et̕íšeʔ|
This example, /t̕et̕íšeʔ/, sweetie, is applied to loved ones and generally children. The translation often indicates a cuteness, frequentness, and a small stature or prominence.
|root word||c1 – consonant-1||v1 – vowel-1|
|si – smart||s||i|
This reduplication pattern applies to roots with the form, consonant, vowel, and occasionally /ʔ/. The spelling of root words with a trailing /ʔ/ is not consistent and often omitted. This is the reason the /ʔ/ is in parenthesis, some have it, and some should have it.
|root word||c1||é||c1||v1||vowel blend||eʔ||reduplicated|
|si – smart||s||é||s||i||y̓||eʔ||sésiy̓eʔ|
This example has a vowel blend. A vowel blend is when one vowel follows another vowel, which are separated by a /ʔ/, often unwritten. The sound that is produced between the vowels is the blend. A vowel following an /i/ will have a /y̓/ sound between the two. This is not part of the reduplication pattern but a feature of vowel blends. The other blend is with a /u/ followed by a vowel. It will have a /w̓/ sound between the /u/ and the /eʔ/.
|root word||c1 – consonant-1||v1 – vowel-1||w, y, v2 – vowel-2|
|sew – ask||s||e||w|
This reduplication pattern applies to roots with double vowels of vowel pairs. The same vowel blend feature as explained above applies to root-vowel pairs. In this example the vowel pair is /eu/. Blends with /u/ sound like a w or w̓. In /sew/ the /w/ represents the blend.
|root word||c1||é||c1||u, i, v2||vowel blend||eʔ||reduplicated|
|sew – ask||s||é||s||u||w̓||eʔ||sésuw̓eʔ|
In this example a /u/ followed by a vowel will have a /w̓/ sound between the two. This is not part of the reduplication pattern but a feature of vowel blends (see above for more on vowel blends).
|root word||c1 – consonant-1||c2 – consonant-2|
|xʷc̓ – argue||xʷ||c̓|
This reduplication pattern applies to roots without a vowel. Most commonly these are double consonant roots.
|x̣ʷc̓ – argue||x̣ʷ||é||x̣ʷ||c̓||eʔ||x̣ʷéx̣ʷc̓eʔ|
The translation for /x̣ʷéx̣ʷc̓eʔ/ is a cute arguer, such as a child or perhaps your sparing/debating partner.
Other morphological rules will apply depending on the root word. Strong /a/ roots will change the /e/ or an /a/.
Often these terms are applied to children or infants and therefore receive a diminutive translation. The form can be applied to any situation that has a cute factor or the actor holds a special place in one’s heart. The diminutive /ɬ/ may be added to increase the cuteness or diminish the stature of the subject.
1. Consonant-vowel-consonant root forms
t̕iš, sweet, becomes t̕et̕íšeʔ, sweetie.
sikʷ, whistle, becomes sesíkʷeʔ, s/he, one that whistles regularly, is a pleasant whistler; beloved whistler; a young child that has started to whistle.
kʷil, red, becomes kʷekʷíl̕eʔ, it is a cute red one; the red thing is cute.
x̣es, good, becomes x̣ex̣éseʔ, s/he/it is a cute one; a child that frequently does acts of kindness and/or cute antics.
2. Consonant-vowel(-ʔ) root forms
si, smart, becomes sesiy̓éʔ, s/he is a beloved clever one; the cute clever one.
3. Consonant-vowel-(w, y vowel) root forms
pii, happy, becomes pepiy̓éʔ, happy one, s/he is a happy person, often happy/jolly.
sew, ask, becomes sesuw̓éʔ, s/he is one that frequently askes cute questions; a young child that frequently askes questions.
q̓ʷay̓, black, becomes q̓ʷaq̓ʷiy̓áʔ, blackie.
t̕ey̓eʔ, bad, becomes, t̕et̕iy̓éʔ, s/he/it is bad but cute; a child/infant that is normally well behaved, cute, is acting badly, yet retains cuteness. To increase cuteness, ɬt̕ét̕iy̓eʔ. If someone were bothersome but in a non-intrusive way or out of ignorance you say about them, t̕ét̕iy̓eʔ.
4. Consonant-consonant root forms
x̣ʷc̓, argue, becomes x̣ʷex̣ʷc̓eʔ, little arguer.