č- elevative

č-/stem-word/-lexical suffix

č-/ /-min, the reason why; It does for/to. This affix co-occurrence indicates the tool for doing/being, or the reason to do/be, where ‘do’ is a function of the stem-word. Prefix, č- elevates

  • k̓ʷul̕, work, the act of producing or accomplishing something. Bi-valent root
  • k̓ʷul̕-mən, the instrument/material to produce or accomplish something.
  • č-k̓ʷul̕-mən, the reason to work; the time to work.
  • n-k̓ʷul̕-mən, the way of producing or accomplishing something.
  • pax̌, to rub/polish surface to surface; make friction. Ambi-valent root
  • č-pax̌ , to light a match; out of the strike/rub.
  • č-pax̌-mən, the tool for lighting a match; a match.
  • č-pax̌lqʷ, to polish wood; rubbing sticks together, polishing it.
  • px̌-pax̌-t, wise, smart; polished.
  • šal, to suspend/hang. Ambi-valent root
  • č-šəl-min, the reason to suspend/hang, the tool for hanging/suspending.
  • xʷus, to be wide awake; alert. Mono-valent root
  • č-xʷəs-min, the reason to be wide awake, the subject of worry/thought.

č-/ /-tin, the reason why; It does for/to it/him/her. This affix co-occurrence indicates the tool for doing to/for one, or the reason why one does. Prefix, č- elevates the instrumental use of the root along with suffix, -tin from tool to the force of the tool.

  • ɬaq̓ʷ, manifest, appear, show up.
  • č-ɬaq̓ʷ-tin, the reason/cause/tool for why s/he/it manifests, appears, shows up.
  • t̕loq̓ʷ, flee, escape, run away.
  • č-t̕lq̓ʷ-in, the reason/cause/tool for why s/he/it flees, escapes, runs away.
  • čn ayx̌ʷt, I am tired.
  • kʷ in-č-ʕayx̌ʷt-n, You are the reason I am tired. [č-ʕayx̌ʷt-(t)n]

č-/ /-ew̓s, elevated relation, up high

Prefix, č– elevates, while suffix, –ew̓s, establishes the relationship between the higher form and the general form. To elevated in relation to a norm. The ‘form’ is the shape/act of the stem-word.

  • č-t̕ap-ew̓s, shoot up in the sky, shoot up high. /t̕ʕ̓ap/, shoot projectile.

č-/ /-épleɁ, elevated authority

  • es-č-qʷlqʷlt-épleɁ-i, s/he is pronouncing special orders. (directions, sentencing, decree, etc.) /qʷl-qʷel-t/, talk.
  • c̓ox̌ʷ, instruct, make known the rule, order, law.
  • č-c̓x̌ʷ-épleɁ, to instruct/judge according to the rule, order, law.
  • č-c̓x̌ʷ-épleɁ-tn, the order, judgement, sentence.
  • mi, know.
  • č-mi-épleɁ, to know in the realm of authority; judge, accuse.

č-/ /-asq̓t, sky, in the sky, on the day

Both affixes must co-occur to indicate the sky. Without č-, suffix –asq̓t indicates day.

  • č-cq̓mn-asq̓t, throw upward into the sky. /cq̓-min/, throw.
  • č-x̌s-asq̓t, good sky, cloudless, pleasing. /x̌es/, well, pleasant.
  • x̌s-asq̓t, good day, pleasing. /x̌es/, well, pleasant
  • č-t̕ap-ásq̓t, shoot up into the sky. /t̕ʕ̓ap/, shoot projectile.

The perceptive senses of taste, sight, smell, and hearing are indicated by suffixes. Prefix č- elevates taste and sight specifically to the experience of each.

  • Sight is / /-us or č-/ /-us;
  • smell is / /-aɬq;
  • taste is / /-aqs or č-/ /-aqs.
  • Hearing is / /-eneɁ or n-/ /-eneɁ.

The next two sections show examples with affix co-occurrence č-/ /-aqs and č-/ /-us are provided.

č-/ /-aqs, elevated taste, experience taste

Suffix -aqs is categorizing/classifying as embodied by both a literal and figurative narrowing/tapering feature. In a directional sense it has forward motion. It is most recognizable as the co-occurring affixes, n-/ /-aqs, in referencing the nose or road/path (vanishing point). When co-occurring with prefix, č-, it indicates a special class of taste in the experience of the stem-word.

  • x̌s-aqs, tastes good.
  • č- x̌s-aqs, enjoy food, savor the taste.

č-/ /-us, elevated source, experience sight

Suffix -us has an ‘outwardness’ reference, an emergence into existence, to be the origin/source. It is used to indicate the literal and figurative concepts, among these are: eye, face, berries, fire, vision, family, etc.

  • x̌s-us, beautiful-looking; pleasant face.
  • č-x̌s-us, look with pleasure; enjoy the view.
  • č-px̌pax̌-s, wise eyes. Polished eyes.
  • č-px̌px̌-us, looks wise. Polished look.

č-/ /-qin, on/of the top.

  • Elevated position on the top, to the extent. Literal
  • Elevated quality of the top. Figurative

This co-occurring affix pair, prefix, č-, elevative, and suffix, -qin, on/of the top, reference a specialization of the top or extent of the act in the stem-word.

Suffix, -qin is a reference to the top or to the extent. Prefix, č- elevates the quality of the top or of the extent it does. This affix co-occurrence is often used to indicate a mountain.

  • yelxʷ, conceal from view.
  • č-iyalxʷ-qn, čiya, to conceal the top; conceal the hair.
  • č-kʷton-qn, big mountain.
  • kʷton-qn, big head.
  • č-kʷil-qn, red hair; red mountain.
  • miš, none.
  • č-miš, only. Elevated out of none results in a meaning, only.
  • č-mš-qn-m-ist, to give up.

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